Neuroscience is the branch of science that deals with the study of the nervous system. The nervous system comprises of brain, spinal cord, and neurons in the human body. Neurons are basic functional block of the nervous system.
Our brain is the most complicated object in the whole universe. It is the single organ that controls the body as all the things we do or happening in our body is performed and controlled by our brain. Even our thoughts and dreams are being created by our brain .Scientists who study this are called Neuroscientists. They are doing research on 100 billion nerve cells in the brain.
In neuroscience, the study is done on
- How brain work on different situations and environmental conditions.
- Structural and functional development of nervous system.
- Study and cure Neurological Disorders.
The research on brain and its functions can be found from the time of ancient Egypt. They thought heart is the reason for intelligence, so they used to remove the brain from the bodies at the time of mummification. After some centuries, Greeks physicians challenged historical views and stated that brain is the main reason for intelligence. Study on brain started in a matured manner in the 18th century after the microscope invention took place.
Major branches of modern neuroscience
- Affective neuroscience – Emotional Behavior of Neurons
- Behavioral Neuroscience – Effects of Brain on one’s behavior
- Cellular neuroscience – study of forms and properties of neurons at cellular level
- Clinical Neuroscience – studying disorders
- Cognitive neuroscience – study of cognitive functions in humans (behavioral/computational modelling)
- Computational neuroscience – how brain computes and functions, maths and other studies
- Cultural neuroscience – cultural and belief impact and effects on brain and its response
- Developmental neuroscience – development of brain from cellular level
- Molecular neuroscience – study of Individual molecules in nervous system
- Neuroengineering use of engineering technology to replace or repair neural system
- Neuroimaging – diagnose the diseases related to brain and check the brain health
- Neuroinformatics – acquire the data, share it, store it and model it.
- Neurolinguistics - Brain control in language speaking
- Neurophysiology – Relationship between brain and its functions with the body parts.
- Paleoneurology – study of the brain using fossil
- Social Neuroscience – study of social process and behaviors with relating to the brain
- Systems neuroscience – behavioral functions in nervous system.
The Society for Neuroscience was started in 1969 and is the world’s largest organization of scientists committed to understand brain and nervous system and share their knowledge to promote the awareness in its education.